This is going to take a while

Today is Day 14 of the not-lockdown in Singapore, and we have now reached the halfway mark. Global infection stands at 2,414,612 with 165,174 deaths. Singapore has 8,014 infections and 11 deaths.

Just today alone, there were 1,426 new infections, more than the total number of infections 14 days ago.

The majority of the new infections in the past two weeks have been from outbreaks in worker dormitories that house the more than 300,000 migrant workers in Singapore. Things are not looking good.

Reuters has recently compiled a list of on-going global efforts in finding effective treatments and vaccines against Covid-19. It provides a useful reference and gives a good stock-take of current activity.

It’s a long article, but it provides summaries and links to external sources for additional information. The simple filter functionality is also quite useful in allowing readers to zoom in on areas of interest.

Here’s a table compiled from information in that article listing 12 candidate drug and non-drug treatments.

NameStatusEarly ResultsDescription
RemdesivirRepurposed Experimental0-3 MonthsAntiviral drug to combat RNA viruses
Kaletra (Lopinavir / Ritonavir)Repurposed0-3 MonthsAntiviral combination used to treat and prevent HIV infections
Hydroxychloroquine / Chloroquine Repurposed0-3 MonthsMalaria drug believed to have antiviral activity
Actemra (Tocilizumab) Repurposed0-3 MonthsMonoclonal antibody approved for rheumatoid arthritis and treatment of cytokine storm in cancer patients
Kevzara (Sarilumab)Repurposed0-3 MonthsMonoclonal antibody approved for inflammatory arthritis, and in trials to treat cytokine storm in Covid-19 patients
Jakavi (Ruxolitinib) Repurposed0-3 MonthsDeveloped to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and in trials to treat cytokine storm in Covid-19 patients
Convalescent Plasma (non-drug)0-3 MonthsBlood plasma from recovered Covid-19 patients transfused into sick patients, in the hope that freshly-made antibodies will help fight virus
NKG2D-ACE2 CAR-NK Cells (non-drug)Experimental0-3 MonthsNKG2D receptor for the immune system’s natural killer (NK) cells paired with the ACE-2 receptor that the virus uses to enter human cells
RhACE2 APN01 Experimental3-6 MonthsSynthetic version of human protein that virus uses to enter cells tested to see if it can block viral entry and decrease viral replication
Camostat Mesylate Repurposed6-12 MonthsProtease inhibitor licensed to treat chronic pancreatitis. In vitro experiments found it blocks a mechanism virus uses to enter human cells
IFX-1Experimental6-12 MonthsMonoclonal antibody targeting complement activation product C5a, designed to block a mechanism of inflammation
Aspirin, Clopidogrel, Rivaroxaban, Atorvastatin, Omeprazole 9-12 MonthsTrial of cardioprotective drugs to prevent direct damage to the heart muscle that appears to drive severity of certain Covid-19 patients
Source: Reuters

And here’s a similar table focusing on seven candidate vaccines.

NameStatusEarly ResultsDescription
mRNA 1273Experimental0-3 MonthsRNA vaccine made with mRNA encoding spike protein of virus encapsulated in a lipid nanoparticle; Moderna project
NVX-CoV2373Experimental0-3 MonthsMatrix-M adjuvant used with vaccine candidate to enhance immune responses
Lentiviral Minigene (LV-SMENP) Experimental3-6 MonthsEngineered minigenes encoding viral antigens; lentiviral vector designed to infect dendritic and T cells to induce immunity
BCG Tuberculosis Vaccine Repurposed3-6 MonthsVaccine that induces broad immune-system response, shown to protect against other respiratory pathogens
INO-4800 Experimental3-6 MonthsDNA plasmid vaccine delivered into skin via patch electroporation device; Inovio project funded by CEPI
AD5-nCovExperimental6-12 MonthsNon-replicating viral vector; recombinant vaccine that uses another respiratory virus (adenovirus) as a vector
ChAdOx1Experimental12-18 MonthsNon-replicating chimpanzee adenovirus vector
Source: Reuters

Things are going to get worse, before they start getting better. But for now, we can all do our part to flatten the curve, and wait until safe and effective treatments and vaccines are found.

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